Mark Hannington is Professor of Economic Geology at the University of Ottawa and former Head of Marine Mineral Resources at the GEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research in Kiel, Germany. He obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (1989) and spent 15 years as a research scientist in the Mineral Deposits Division of the Geological Survey of Canada before moving to the University of Ottawa in 2005. His research combines the study of active volcanoes on the ocean floor with ancient volcanic environments that host fossil hydrothermal systems. He has participated on 30 research cruises and has conducted major research projects on hydrothermal systems on land.